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圭亚那近海石油项目是埃克森美孚的最佳投资

2021-10-29 来源: 中国石化新闻网
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  中国石化新闻网讯 事实证明,埃克森在圭亚那的近海业务非常有利可图,预计项目的盈亏平衡成本将从每桶35美元降至25美元,为行业最低水平。要知道,埃克森美孚拥有非常有利的产量分成协议和较低的矿区使用费。

  据10月28日今日油价报道,全球能源巨头埃克森美孚(ExxonMobil)是为数不多的投资发展圭亚那蓬勃发展的西方能源巨头之一。2015年,埃克森美孚在Stabroek区块660万英亩土地上获得了第一个高质量石油发现,埃克森美孚是该区块运营商,并拥有该区块45%的股份。到2020年底,当全球石油公司都在勒紧裤腰带,学着在每桶50美元以下的世界里生活时,埃克森宣布将把资本支出重点放在圭亚那近海。从现在的情况来看,对这家全球能源巨头来说,这一决定无疑带来了回报。圭亚那正逐渐成为南美洲乃至世界上最热的海上钻井地点。到2021年10月,埃克森美孚宣布在Stabroek区块发现第23口原油,包括Cataback-1油井,该油井紧随9月Pinktail油井发现而来。这一最新发现,加上此前在圭亚那近海发现的大量高质量石油,使得埃克森美孚将Stabroek区块可开采石油资源从此前评估的80多亿桶提升至100亿桶。

  除了Stabroek区块取得了可观的钻井成功和勘探潜力外,事实证明,该区块在运营方面也非常有利可图。赫斯(Hess)持有Stabroek 30%的股份,该公司在2020年2月表示,Liza第一阶段在2020年12月实现了12万桶/日的产能,盈利率很低,仅为35美元/桶。预计在Liza第二阶段开发投产后,油价将进一步跌至25美元/桶的行业低点。Liza Unity FPSO于2021年8月从新加坡启航前往圭亚那,按计划将于2022年初开始作业。FPSO生产能力为22万桶/日,并将在Liza油田开发约6亿桶原油。

  埃克森还在开发Stabroek区块的Payara油田,该油田位于Liza油田北部,水深约2000米。预计Payara油田将在32美元/桶的水平上实现盈亏平衡,在布伦特原油售价超过85美元/桶的情况下,该油田盈利能力相当可观。预计Payara将于2024年开始生产,日产原油22万桶。这意味着到2024年中期,埃克森美孚预计将从Stabroek区块开采约56万桶原油。

  更重要的是,Stabroek区块油田的低盈亏平衡价格,以及与圭亚那政府达成的非常有利的产量分成协议,以及较低的矿区使用费和回收开发成本的手段,使圭亚那成为埃克森美孚高利润辖区。这家能源巨头计划进一步扩大其在Stabroek区块的业务,将Yellowtail油田作为下一个也是第四个开发项目。这是埃克森美孚在该区块的第13个石油发现,还有一口5622米长的Yellowtail-1井,该井钻入该公司归类为新储层的区域。在2020年上半年完成的Yellowtail-2井,是Stabroek区块的第17个石油发现,证实了Yellowtail-1井所识别的含油砂岩油藏存在。据埃克森美孚称,该项目将包括附近Redtail油田,该油田是在2020年9月完成Redtail-1井钻井时发现的。埃克森美孚预计,到2026年,Stabroek区块原油日产量将超过75万桶。

  Stabroek正逐渐成为埃克森美孚的重要资产,不仅因为它发现了大量高质量石油,而且还因为其已发现和正在生产的原油特性。埃克森美孚Liza级原油API比重为32度,硫含量为0.58%。这不仅意味着它比通常在南美洲陆地上发现的重质和超稠油混合油更容易提炼,成本更低,而且在提取时比其他混合油的碳足迹要低得多。在一个各国政府都在努力减少碳足迹、将全球变暖控制在2摄氏度以下的世界里,这些特征非常重要。这给全球能源公司带来了相当大的压力,因为它们被要求实现碳中和。在经历了一些阻力后,埃克森美孚承诺通过开发低碳排放化石燃料作为其上游业务的一部分,来减少其业务碳足迹。Stabroek区块的开发及其储层内轻质低硫原油是该战略的重要组成部分。在全球变暖限制在2摄氏度以内的情况下,石油和天然气仍将是重要能源,这一点尤为重要。

  圭亚那国家政府正专注于确保这个极度贫困的南美国家从埃克森美孚2015年发现的巨大石油财富中获益。这不仅包括分享由埃克森牵头财团开发Stabroek区块所产生的利润,还包括建设基础设施,为圭亚那快速增长的经济提供能源。2020年,石油生产投资加上石油出口收入使国内生产总值(gdp)增长了43.5%,而其他所有区域经济体都因疫情而收缩。国际货币基金组织预计,随着石油投资和生产扩大,圭亚那经济将在2021年以惊人的20%的速度增长。乔治敦大学正在寻找合作伙伴建造一条220公里的海底天然气管道,将Liza油田与陆上天然气处理设施和燃气发电厂连接起来。埃克森美孚向乔治城大学保证,到2024年,该管道将能够从Liza油田每天输送5000万立方英尺天然气。这将减少埃克森美孚对其Liza油田生产的天然气燃除需求,从而减少Liza油田碳足迹。今年年初,这家超大型石油公司花费了4亿美元燃除费用。随着更多石油工业基础设施开发,圭亚那能源项目盈亏平衡价格将下降,使圭亚那成为一个高利润目的地,因此该地区对外国能源公司具有吸引力。

  王佳晶 摘译自 今日油价

  原文如下:

  Exxon Is By Far The Best Bet On Guyana’s Offshore Oil Boom

  Exxon’s operations offshore Guyana are proving to be highly profitable

  Breakeven costs for its projects are expected to drop from $35 per barrel to $25 per barrel, an industry low

  ExxonMobil has a very favorable production sharing agreement and low royalty rates

  Global energy supermajor ExxonMobil is one of the few Western energy companies to invest in developing Guyana’s burgeoning oil industry. Since making the first high quality oil discovery during 2015 in the 6.6 million acre Stabroek Block, where Exxon is the operator and owns a 45% interest, the oil supermajor has experienced incredible success. By the end of 2020, when global oil companies were tightening their belts and learning to live in a sub-$50 per barrel world Exxon announced it was focusing capital spending on offshore Guyana. That decision is paying off in spades for the global energy supermajor. Guyana is shaping up to be South America’s and potentially the world’s hottest offshore drilling location. By October 2021, Exxon had announced its 23rd crude oil discovery in the Stabroek Block with the Cataback-1 well which came hot on the heels of September’s find at the Pinktail well. The latest discovery along with the spate of earlier high-quality oil discoveries in offshore Guyana saw Exxon upgrade its estimated recoverable petroleum resources in the Stabroek Block, from an earlier appraisal of more than eight billion barrels, to 10 billion barrels.

  Aside from the considerable drilling success and exploration upside to be unlocked in the Stabroek Block, operations are proving to be highly profitable. Hess, which owns a 30% interest in Stabroek, stated in February 2020 that Liza Phase One, which in December 2020 achieved full production capacity of 120,000 barrels per day, has a low breakeven price of $35 per barrel. That is expected to fall further to an industry low of $25 per barrel when the Liza Phase Two development comes online. The Liza Unity FPSO, which set sail from Singapore for Guyana in August 2021, is on schedule to commence operations during early 2022. The FPSO has installed production capacity of 220,000 barrels per day and will develop around 600 million barrels of crude oil in the Liza field.

  Exxon is also developing the Payara oilfield in the Stabroek Block, located to the north of Liza one at a water depth of around 2,000 meters. The Payara field is expected to breakeven at $32 per barrel, highlighting the operations considerable profitability in an environment where Brent is selling for over $85 per barrel. It is anticipated that Payara will commence production during 2024 and have capacity to pump 220,000 barrels of crude oil per day. This means that by mid-2024 Exxon expects to be pumping around 560,000 barrels of crude oil from the Stabroek Block.

  More importantly, a combination of low breakeven prices for the oilfields in the Stabroek Block and a very favorable production sharing agreement with Guyana’s government, with a low royalty rate and the means to recover development costs, makes Guyana a highly profitable jurisdiction for Exxon. The energy supermajor plans to further expand its operations in the Stabroek Block targeting the Yellowtail field as the next, and fourth, development. This was Exxon’s 13th oil discovery in the block and the 5,622-meter Yellowtail-1 well which drilled into what the company classified as a new reservoir. The Yellowtail-2 well completed during the first half of 2020, which was the 17th oil discovery in the Stabroek Block, confirmed the presence of the oil-bearing sandstone reservoir identified by the Yellowtail-1 well. That project according to Exxon will include the nearby Redtail oilfield which was discovered with the drilling of the Redtail-1 well completed in September 2020. Exxon anticipates that by 2026 the Stabroek Block will be pumping more than 750,000 barrels of crude oil per day That solid development runway coupled with the Stabroek Block’s substantial exploration upside indicates that recoverable oil resources will keep growing to well beyond 10 billion barrels.

  Stabroek is shaping up to be a crucial asset for Exxon not only because of the large volume of quality petroleum discoveries but also characteristics of the crude oil discovered and being produced. Exxon’s Liza grade crude oil has an API gravity of 32 degrees and sulfur content of 0.58%. That not only signifies that it is easier and cheaper to refine than heavy and super-heavy crude oil blends, which are typically found in onshore South America, but has a far lower carbon footprint than many other blends when extracted. Those characteristics are important in a world where governments are working feverishly to reduce their carbon footprints and keep global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius. That has seen considerable pressure placed on global energy companies to become carbon neutral. After some resistance, Exxon committed to reducing the carbon footprint of its operations by developing, as part of its upstream operations, low carbon emitting sources of fossil fuels. The development of the Stabroek Block and the light sweet crude oil contained within its reservoirs forms an important part of that strategy. This is especially important to consider when it is accepted that oil and natural gas will remain important sources of energy even in a world where global warming is limited to less than 2 degrees Celsius.

  Guyana’s national government in Georgetown is focused on ensuring the deeply impoverished South American nation benefits from the vast petroleum wealth discovered by Exxon since 2015. This not only incudes in sharing in the profits generated by the Exxon led consortium developing the Stabroek Block but also building out infrastructure to supply energy to Guyana’s rapidly growing economy. Investment in petroleum production coupled with oil export revenues was responsible for gross domestic product expanding 43.5% during 2020, at a time when all other regional economies contracted because of the pandemic. The IMF expects Guyana’s economy to grow by an impressive 20% during 2021 as petroleum investment and production expands. Georgetown is seeking partners to build a 220-kilometer subsea natural gas pipeline connecting the Liza oilfield to an onshore natural gas processing facility and a gas-fired powerplant. Exxon has provided guarantees to Georgetown that the pipeline will be able to transport 50 million cubic feet of natural gas per day from its Liza oilfield by 2024. That will reduce Exxon’s need to flare the natural gas produced by its Liza operations, which cost the supermajor $400 million in flaring fees earlier this year, thereby reducing the carbon footprint of the Liza field. As additional petroleum industry infrastructure is developed breakeven prices for energy projects in Guyana will fall, making it a highly profitable and hence attractive destination for foreign energy companies.

 
 
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